By introducing our wireless telematic univeristy
on the net, we aim to give a short introduction to wirelss telematics,
the technology used, and a short description of the business potential
of applying wirelss telematics in some areas. We hope this will
help you in your planning. If you are already a customer, a partner
or a competitor the topics included below are areas worth addressing.
This page will be continously changed and updated with new information.
If you find something missing here, dont hesitate to contact us.
Wireless telematics and machine-to-machine
communication (M2M) is expected to be of great interest for many
applications, and that it will open new possibilities for solution
providers, service providers, and for end users. Telematics refer
to the broad industry related to using computers in concert with
telecommunications systems. This includes dial-up service to the
Internet, as well as all types of networks that rely on a telecommunications
system to transport data.
The Wireless Application Protocol (WAP)
is an open, global specification that empowers mobile users with
wireless devices to easily access and interact with information
Many devices like mobile phones, pagers,
two-way radios, smartphones and communicators equiped with a WAP-Browser
may use WAP. WAP is designed to work with most wireless networks
such as CDPD, CDMA, GSM, PDC, PHS, TDMA, FLEX, ReFLEX, iDEN, TETRA,
DECT, DataTAC, Mobitex and many operating systems are supporting
the communication protocol and application environment. It can be
built on any operating system including PalmOS, EPOC, Windows CE,
FLEXOS, OS/9, JavaOS etc. It provides service interoperability even
between different device families.
The Navstar Global Positioning System (GPS)
is a space-based radio-positioning and time-transfer system. GPS
provides accurate position, velocity, and time (PVT) information
to an unlimited number of suitably equipped ground, sea, air and
space users. Passive PVT fixes are available world-wide in all-weathers
in a world-wide common grid system. Normally GPS contains features
which limit the full accuracy of the service only to authorized
users and protection from spoofing (hostile imitation). GPS comprises
three major system segments, Space, Control, and User.
The Space Segment consists of a nominal
constellation of 24 Navstar satellites. Each satellite broadcasts
RF ranging codes and a navigation data message.
The Control Segment consists of a network
of monitoring and control facilities which are used to manage the
satellite constellation and update the satellite navigation data
The User Segment consists of a variety of
radio navigation receivers specifically designed to receive, decode,
and process the GPS satellite ranging codes and navigation data
Actual time spent talking on the cellular telephone. Most carriers
bill customers based on how many minutes of airtime they use
Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) is the term used by AT&T’s
Bell Laboratories (prior to the break-up in 1984) to refer to
its cellular technology. The AMPS standard has been the foundation
for the industry in the United States, although it has been
slightly modified in recent years.
A message or other type of readout containing both letters ("alphas")
and numbers ("numeric"). In cellular, "alphanumeric memory dial"
is a special type of dial-from-memory option that displays both
the name of individual and that individuals phone number on
the cellular phone handset. The name also can be recalled by
using the letters on the phone keypad. By contrast, standard
memory dial recalls numbers from number-only locations.
The traditional method of modulating radio signals so that they
can carry information. AM (amplitude modulation) and FM (frequency
modulation) are the two most common methods of analog modulation.
Analog modulation techniques have been around for more than
50 years and offer a proven, known method of transmitting information.
Bluetooth wireless technology is a de facto standard, as well
as a specification for small-form factor, low-cost, short
range radio links between mobile PCs, mobile phones and other
Machine-to-business communication; this is the most common
description for this abbreviation.
The basic geographic unit of a cellular system. Also, the basis
for the generic industry term "cellular." A city or county is
divided into smaller "cells," each of which is equipped with
a low powered radio transmitter/receiver. The cells can vary
in size depending upon terrain, capacity demands, etc. By controlling
the transmission power, the radio frequencies assigned to one
cell can be limited to the boundaries of that cell. When a cellular
phone moves from one cell toward another, a computer at the
Mobile Telephone Switching Office (MTSO) monitors the movement
and at the proper time, transfers or hands off the phone call
to the new cell and another radio frequency. The hand off is
performed so quickly that it's not noticeable to the callers.
A means of increasing the capacity of a cellular system by subdividing
or splitting cells into two or more smaller cells.
Code Division Multiple Access. A spread spectrum approach to
digital transmission. With CDMA, each conversation is digitized
and then tagged with a code. The mobile phone is then instructed
to decipher only a particular code to pluck the right conversation
off the air. The process can be compared in some ways to an
English-speaking person picking out the only person in a room
of foreigners who is speaking English (code). The technique
is still being researched for cellular application. See also
A method of encoding information for transmission that is replacing
the former standard analog. The information, or in this case,
voice conversation, is turned into a series of digital bits
- the 0’s and 1’s of computer binary language. At the receiving
end, the information is reconverted. Digital transmission offers
a cleaner signal, virtually immune to the problems that plague
analog modulation such as fading and static. (To understand
the difference, compare the fidelity of a standard LP record,
complete with background noise caused by dust hiss, with that
of one of the new digital compact disks.) See also CDMA and
||ESN) Electronic Serial Number.
Each cellular phone is assigned an ESN, which is automatically
transmitted to the base station every time a cellular call is
placed. The MTSO checks the ESN to make sure it is valid, that
the phone has not been reported stolen, that the user's monthly
bill has been paid, etc., before permitting the call to go through.
|| FCC) Federal Communications
The government agency responsible for regulating telecommunications
in the US, located in Washington, DC.
The ability to use the same frequencies repeatedly within a
single system, made possible by the basic design approach for
cellular. Since each cell is designed to use radio frequencies
only within its boundaries, the same frequencies can be reused
in other cells not far away with little potential for interference.
The reuse of frequencies is what allows a cellular system to
handle a huge number of calls with a limited number of channels.
General Packet Radio Services; General Packet Radio Service
is a standard for wireless communications which runs at speeds
up to 150 kilobits per second, compared with current GSM (Global
System for Mobile Communications) systems' 9.6 kilobits.
GPRS, which supports a wide range of bandwidths, is an efficient
use of limited bandwidth and is particularly suited for sending
and receiving small bursts of data, such as e-mail and Web
browsing, as well as large volumes of data.
Global Positioning System.
GSM) Groupe Spéciale Mobile.
A cellular standard for the european countries and a couple
of more countries. Utilizes digital transmission and the use
of SIM-cards that identifies the user. In the earlier analog
systems such as NMT, the user was identified by the phone.
The process by which the MTSO passes a cellular phone conversation
from one radio frequency in one cell to another radio frequency
in another. It is performed so quickly that callers don't
A feature that's included with most of today's car phones.
It permits the driver to use his cellular car phone without
lifting or holding the handset to his ear.
Machine-to-machine communication; this is the most common
description for this abbreviation. In some contexts machine-to-man
or man-to-machine are used instead.
Machine-to-business communication; this is the most common
description for this abbreviation.
A macrocell is a cell site that can hold 60-120 channels (capacity)
and can have either high or low power. Macrocells were initially
used as the only resource for coverage. However, with the
introduction of microcells and minicells, macrocells are now
used primarily to cover large areas that have high traffic.
A microcell is a small LMT that feeds off a host macrocell.
The microcell has low power and a low channel count, making
it ideal for high traffic city neighborhoods. The drawback
with a microcell is that it is linked to the host macrocell
by fiber which is expensive to install and has a high recurring
monthly cost. Another drawback is that there must be a host
macrocell within the region in order to have a microcell commissioned.
The plus is that microcells are extremely small, (about large
as an antenna) and can be installed in ideal places, (i.e.
the side of a building in the middle of a busy intersection).
A smaller version of the macrocell, the minicell can have
either a high power and low channel capacity combination or
a low power and high channel capacity combination.
Mobile (car phone))
The type of cellular phone that's installed in a car or truck.
There are three main types of cellular phones being sold today
- mobile, transportable and portable. A mobile is installed
in the vehicle and draws power from the vehicle battery, it
transmits with 3 watts power. A transportable is a standard
3 watt cellular phone that can be used in the car off the
car battery or removed from the car and function with its
own battery. A portable is a one piece, self contained cellular
MTSO) Mobile Telephone Switching Office.
The central switch that controls the entire operation of a
cellular system. It is a sophisticated computer that monitors
all cellular calls, keeps track of the location of all cellular
equipped vehicles traveling in the system, arranges hand-offs,
keeps track of billing information etc.
||Non-Wireline cellular carrier,
or "A" carrier) The "A" originally stood for "alternate," i.e.
the non-Bell or "B" carrier in a market.) The FCC, in setting
up the licensing and regulatory rules for cellular, decided
to license two cellular systems in each market. It opened one
for the local telephone company, and opened the second system
- the A system - to other interested applicants. The distinction
between the A carrier and the B carrier is meaningful only during
the licensing phase at the FCC. Once a system is constructed,
it can be sold to anyone. Thus in some markets today, both the
A and B carriers are owned by a telephone company. One happens
to be the local phone company, and the other is a phone company
that decided to buy a cellular system outside its home territory.
Nordic Mobile Telephony, an analog cellular system that is used
in the nordic countries Sweden, Norway, Finland, Iceland, Denmark,
also in Schweiz and Austria. It is now gradually being replaced
by the more advanced GSM system.
The periods of time, after the end of the business day, that
carriers offer discounted airtime charges.
Using your cellular phone in a country besides the one in which
A chip that is used in conjuction with the digital phones that
uses cellular net's like GSM and D-AMPS. The card can hold several
phone numbers and identifies the user to the net. This way the
user is free to change the phone and still be reachable with
the same number.
Short Message Service, a service that is offered in the GSM-net.
It is similar to a one-way paging service.
The amount of time you can leave your fully charged cellular
portable or transportable phone turned on, without calling or
The length of time you can talk on your portable or transportable
cellular phone without recharging the battery. The battery
capacity of a portable or transportable is usually expressed
in terms of so many minutes of talk time or so many hours
of standby time. When you're talking, the phone draws more
power from the battery.
TDMA) Time Division Multiple Access.
The digital technique adopted by the US cellular industry
for the next generation of cellular service. The first generation
of TDMA will offer a 3-to-1 gain in capacity for cellular
systems, with more to follow. The technique involves dividing
discreet amounts of time on a radio frequency into parts,
then assigning different phone conversations to each part.
In other words, each second might be divided into thirds,
and portions of three phone conversations transmitted each
second. The caller can't notice the gaps because they're so
Telematics refers to the broad industry
related to using computers in concert with telecommunications
systems. This includes dial-up service to the Internet as
well as all types of networks that rely on a telecommunications
system to transport data.
Wireless Application Protocol, see www.wapforum.com